Cookie Settings

We use cookies to optimize our website. These include cookies that are necessary for the operation of the site, as well as those that are only used for anonymous statistic. You can decide for yourself which categories you want to allow. Further information can be found in our data privacy protection .


These cookies are necessary to run the core functionalities of this website and cannot be disabled.

Name Webedition CMS
Purpose This cookie is required by the CMS (Content Management System) Webedition for the system to function correctly. Typically, this cookie is deleted when the browser is closed.
Name econda
Purpose Session cookie emos_jcsid for the web analysis software econda. This runs in the “anonymized measurement” mode. There is no personal reference. As soon as the user leaves the site, tracking is ended and all data in the browser are automatically deleted.

These cookies help us understand how visitors interact with our website by collecting and analyzing information anonymously. Depending on the tool, one or more cookies are set by the provider.

Name econda
Purpose Statistics
External media

Content from external media platforms is blocked by default. If cookies from external media are accepted, access to this content no longer requires manual consent.

Name YouTube
Purpose Show YouTube content
Name Twitter
Purpose activate Twitter Feeds

X-nuclei MR

X-nuclei are physiologically relevant nuclei with a nuclear spin I > 0, which can thus be used for signal detection in addition to hydrogen. The requirements for X-nuclei imaging are strongly associated with their atomic properties. Due to the nucleus-specific gyromagnetic ratio the different nuclei have differing resonance frequencies at 7 Tesla (1H: ca. 297 MHz, 23Na: ca. 79 MHz, 35Cl: ca. 29 MHz, 39K: ca. 14 MHz). As a result, the MR scanner must support these frequencies in addition to the proton frequency and special coils are required for the respective nuclei (e.g. 23Na head coil, 23Na body coil). In collaboration with the research groups '7 Tesla MR: RF Systems and Concepts' and 'Electromagnetic Simulations and RF Safety' we are developing and building MR coils for X-nuclei imaging in-house such as a sodium body coil (Platt et al., Magn Reson Med, 2018).

Furthermore, 17O, 23Na, 39K, and 35Cl have a nuclear spin greater than 1/2 and thus exhibit very short relaxation times. This necessitates the use of dedicated pulse sequences such as a density-adapted radial sequence (Nagel et al., Magn Reson Med, 2009). Furthermore, the in vivo concentration of X-nuclei is orders of magnitude lower compared to the concentration of 1H. X-nuclei imaging therefore greatly benefits from ultrahigh static magnetic fields such as 7 Tesla and X-nuclei MR investigations can be further improved via advanced image reconstruction and post-processing techniques.



  • Gast LV, Platt T, Nagel AM, Gerhalter T: Recent technical developments and clinical research applications of sodium (23Na) MRI. Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. 2023.
  • Platt T, Ladd ME, Paech D: 7 Tesla and beyond: advanced methods and clinical applications in magnetic resonance imaging. Investigative radiology. 2021; 56:705-725.
  • Kratzer FJ, Flassbeck S, Schmitter S, Wilferth T, Magill AW, Knowles BR, ... & Nagel AM. 3D sodium (23Na) magnetic resonance fingerprinting for time‐efficient relaxometric mapping. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2021; 86(5):2412-2425.
  • Kratzer FJ, Flassbeck S, Nagel AM, Behl NGR, Knowles BR, Bachert P, ... & Schmitter S. Sodium relaxometry using 23Na MR fingerprinting: A proof of concept. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2020; 84(5):2577-2591.
  • Lott J, Platt T, Niesporek SC, Paech D, Behl NGR, Niendorf T, ... & Nagel AM. Corrections of myocardial tissue sodium concentration measurements in human cardiac 23Na MRI at 7 Tesla. Magnetic resonance in medicine. 2019; 82(1): 159-173.
  • Niesporek SC, Nagel AM, & Platt T. Multinuclear MRI at ultrahigh fields. Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2019; 28(3):173-188.
  • Platt T, Umathum R, Fiedler TM, Nagel AM, Bitz AK, Maier F, Bachert P, Ladd ME, Wielpütz MO, Kauczor HU, Behl NGR: In vivo self-gated 23Na MRI at 7 T using an oval-shaped body resonator. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2018; 80:1005-1019.
  • Nagel AM, Laun FB, Weber MA, Matthies C, Semmler W, Schad LR. Sodium MRI using a density-adapted 3D radial acquisition technique. Magn Reson Med 2009; 62(6):1565-1573. 



← back

to top
powered by webEdition CMS